South Africa clinched a record fourth Rugby World Cup title by doing just enough to deny 14-man New Zealand and retain their crown in Paris, as captain, Siya Kolisi goes down in History.

The Springboks seemed to have control when, with Handre Pollard's dead-eyed goalkicking having already given them a 9-3 lead, Sam Cane caught Jesse Kriel high in the 27th minute. The New Zealand captain was shown a red card on review and another Pollard penalty left the All Blacks a man down, nine points behind and in deep trouble.

Both teams pushed for a decisive score in an enthralling final quarter, but neither found one, with Jordie Barrett missing a long-range 73rd-minute penalty and the Springboks clinging on for a third successive one-point victory in the knockout stages. Kolisi, the first Black captaon in History to lift two consecutive winning trophies, clutched his head in disbelief as he danced off the bench and towards his team-mates on the final whistle.

His side are the first team to win the tournament back-to-back away from home and are now the undeniable dominant force in World Cup history. Their latest victory means the Springboks have won half of the eight tournaments they have taken part in.

Under Kolisi - the team's first Black Test captain - they have won backing from across the spectrum of the Rainbow Nation. Ian Foster's four-year reign as New Zealand head coach ends within a whisker of the ultimate prize, having come under pressure in the build-up when his team dipped below their usual high historical standards.

With the Stade de France still ringing to the sound of a full-throttle haka, the two teams tore into each other from the off. Eben Etzebeth levelled Mo'unga to cheers and groans before Shannon Frizell's desperate attempt to remove South Africa hooker Bongi Mbonami from a breakdown took both players out of the game - one temporarily, one permanently.

On review, Frizell was let off with a yellow for an ugly-looking neck roll clear-out, while the injured Nbonambi, the Springboks' only specialist hooker, was forced out of the game. In the midst of some heavy traffic, Cane flew into a collision with Kriel.

It was over-eager rather than malicious, but his shoulder to the side of the South Africa centre's head, with no effort to dip, made a red card the likely outcome on review. Referee Wayne Barnes delivered the news as Pollard lined up another penalty, following good work from Steven Kitshoff.

Pollard landed his kick to dig New Zealand's hole a little deeper and it seemed, with 34 minutes gone and the All Blacks 12-3 adrift, as though the destiny of the contest and the cup might already be decided. But the All Blacks raged against the script.

Kurt-Lee Arendse came within inches of a score as he chased a seemingly lost cause. Aaron Smith had already seen a try chalked off for an earlier knock-on when Jordie Barrett slung an enormous pass wide to Mark Telea.

New Zealand flung everything they had at the Boks, whose defence strained, but stayed intact. The All Blacks' clearest chance came when South Africa wing Cheslin Kolbe knocked the ball out of the air as he rushed in to tackle a galloping Anton Lienert-Brown.

Kolbe was shown yellow for a deliberate knock-on and Jordie Barrett called for the tee. But the All Black centre's kick - from a tricky angle just inside the Bok half - fell wide and, try as they might, his side could not make the most of another spell back at 14-men apiece for the remainder of the game.

After similarly narrow victories over France and England, South Africa walked the hardest, narrowest route to the trophy.